Wangari Maathai

(b. April 1, 1940, Nyeri, Kenya) In 2004 the Kenyan politician and environmental activist Wangari Muta Maathai was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize for Peace, becoming the first black African woman to win the award. Her work often has been considered both unwelcome and subversive in her own country, where…

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Margaret Sanger

(b. Sept. 14, 1879, Corning, N.Y., U.S.-d. Sept. 6, 1966, Tucson, Ariz.) Margaret Sanger founded the birth-control movement in the United States and was an international leader in the field. In fact, she is credited with originating the term “birth control.” The sixth of 11 children, Margaret Louisa Higgins attended…

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Isadora Duncan

(b. May 26, 1877 or May 27, 1878, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.-d. Sept. 14, 1927, Nice, France) The American dancer Isadora Duncan (born Angela Duncan) helped free ballet from its conservative restrictions through her teaching and performances and presaged the development of modern expressive dance. She was among the first…

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Hatshepsut

(fl. 15th century BCE) The most famous female king of Egypt was Hatshepsut (Hatchepsut), who reigned in her own right c. 1473–58 BCE. She attained unprecedented power for a woman, adopting the full titles and regalia of a pharaoh. Hatshepsut was the elder daughter of the 18th-dynasty king Thutmose I…

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Eleanor Roosevelt

(b. Oct. 11, 1884, New York, N.Y., U.S.-d. Nov. 7, 1962, New York City) Eleanor Roosevelt was an American first lady (1933–45), the wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd president of the United States, and a United Nations diplomat and humanitarian. She was, in her time, one of the world’s…

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Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

(b. Oct. 20, 1942, Magdeburg, Ger.) The German developmental geneticist Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard was jointly awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with geneticists Eric F. Wieschaus and Edward B. Lewis for their research concerning the mechanisms of early embryonic development. Nüsslein-Volhard, working in tandem with Wieschaus, expanded upon…

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HARLEY-DAVIDSON JD28 motorcycle

HARLEY RARELY RUSHED change, and it always knew the value of cubic inches. The history of the 45° F-head V-twin goes back to the original prototype twin of 1907, and by 1928 it was approaching its expiration date. In 1922 Harley created the JD model by increasing capacity from 61…

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HARLEY-DAVIDSON Model S Racer motorcycle

A NEW 350CC RACING CLASS was created soon after Harley unveiled its “Peashooter” racer in the summer of 1925. The bike was based on its new 21cu. in. (346cc) o.h.v. single-cylinder economy road bike. To make it competitive for dirt-track racing, the bike had a shortened frame and simple telescopic…

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GREEVES 20T motorcycle

THE FIRST Greeves prototype motorcycles appeared in 1951; the company also made “invalid” cars. The first production models, launched in 1953, had novel features such as a distinctive castalloy beam in place of a downtube and headstock, and a rubber-in-torsion suspension system. These models included road, scramblers, and trials machines…

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EXCELSIOR Super X motorcycle

INTRODUCED IN 1925, the Super X was the first of a new class of American 45cu. in. (738cc) machines. It was quickly followed into the marketplace by Indian and Harley-Davidson forty-fives. The new model featured a neat unitconstruction engine/gearbox. Primary drive to the three-speed gearbox was by helical gear, and…

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